Peter Chalk Centre

University of Exeter

Stocker Road

Exeter

EX4 4QD

Tel: +44 (0)1392 263637

E-mail: CCWI2019@exeter.ac.uk 

17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference

1st - 4th September 2019
University of Exeter, UK
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3A Systems modelling

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Donghwi Jung

Chair:

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Vulnerability of water resources and systems: Central Italy earthquake case study

Caterina Capponi

Presenter:

Authors:

Caterina Capponi, Michele Cartechini, Bruno Brunone, Silvia Meniconi and Marco Cifrodelli

The extent of damages caused by the 2016-17 Central Italy earthquakes is well known. Between 24th August 2016 and 18th January 2017 a number of 9 eartquakes of moment magnitude larger than 5 hit Central Italy and they have been followed by thousands of aftershocks. The large number of damages is due to the fact that not all the buildings were constructed under the antiseismic laws or conformed to them. While a great attention has been given to damages to buildings, less attention, as usual, has been given to the effects of the seismic events on water resources and on water systems – they are so-called “buried and forgotten” – notwithstanding their cruciality for all human activities. In fact, besides fractures and bursts on pipes corresponding to fault lines, some alterations, although not alarming, have been found in the water quality in sampling points and in the flow regime in some rivers and uptakes. The need of searching for new water resources in order to improve the water systems reliability is highlighted. Moreover, it is shown that an optimal management of the systems and the leakage reduction are crucial for the prevention of the water crisis that may follow an earthquake. Water companies that manage water distribution systems in the areas damaged by these eartquakes found a number of problems in handling the emergency, pointing out the need of more detailed coordination plans, aimed to provide the water service, especially in the first aid areas, and to ensure a prompt and effective intervention.

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Exploring the practical feasibility of the RTC of pressure in WDNs through laboratory experiments

Camillo Bosco

Presenter:

Authors:

Camillo Bosco, Alberto Campisano, Carlo Modica and Giuseppe Pezzinga

Remote real time control (RTC) has been proven to provide improved pressure control in water distribution networks (WDNs) through dynamic adjustment of control valves based on pressure levels monitored at critical nodes of the network. This paper presents novel experiments to explore impact of remote RTC for pressure control in WDNs. A laboratory test rig was considered that includes the use of a needle valve for control of pressure based on the adoption of a proportional controller. Preliminary results show the practical feasibility of remote RTC in WDNs, pointing out the importance of proper calibration of the proportional gain of the controller.

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Optimization of pressure control in water distribution systems with no storage capacity

Dimitrios Nerantzis

Presenter:

Authors:

Dimitrios Nerantzis, Filippo Pecci and Ivan Stoianov

We use mathematical optimization in order to formulate and solve the (NLP) problem of simultaneous control of variable seed pumps (VSPs) and pressure reducing valves (PRVs), in water distribution networks without storage. We consider both single and multi-objective optimization and use average zonal pressure, energy consumption and water treatment cost as objective functions. In contrast to previous literature, pump efficiency is allowed to vary while efficiency bounds are modeled as constraints within the optimization problem formulation. In this way we can implicitly model VSPs but without neglecting the pump characteristics. In addition, we propose a simple algorithm for automatically selecting appropriate flow modulation control curves for pumps and valves. The whole process is thus considered as a complete automated scheme which is scalable to large and realistic networks without storage. The presented methodology considers the full hydraulic model of the network and does not rely on critical points/nodes. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a case study based on a real water distribution network from UK with 2 VSPs, 2 PRVs, 2013 nodes and 2369 pipes and present our results and conclusions.

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Assessing Background Leakage Models in WDNs

Camille Chambon

Presenter:

Authors:

Camille Chambon, Olivier Piller and Iraj Mortazavi

Background leakages in water distribution networks (WDNs) may represent important economic and environmental losses, and significant ones should be integrated in hydraulic models to help utilities making good decisions for better rehabilitation and operational management of water-related infrastructures. Nowadays WDN models either do not take inertial effects into account or do not model background leakages explicitly. Moreover, not all of the current formulations have been tested on actual and large WDNs yet. Thus, there is a need to deeply analyse, test and compare these formulations, so as to clarify their range of validity and improve them taking the most benefit of their respective advantages. To achieve this goal we propose to analyse, compare and discuss the existing formulations which incorporate both inertia and background leakages in steady state and slow transient models. In particular, to reconcile computational efficiency and physical accuracy, we choose to consider background leakages as piecewise constant functions in time and streamline direction. We integrate the equations using a Rosenbrock method, we run the models on simplified and real WDNs, and we quantify the uncertainties of the models to assess their reliability and range of validity. Preliminary analysis of two existing formulations of background leakages shows strong similarities between inertial terms. Taking acceleration head and additional leakage convective inertia into account using slow transient models gives the most realistic results, and considering constant background leakages at the pipe scale provides a good representation while keeping the computation times acceptable. As a conclusion, this study is a first step toward the development and validation of slow transient models incorporating background leakages to simulate large WDNs. Future work will consist in the calibration and global sensitivity analysis of the models.

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Benefits of hydraulic simulation models as a tool to support pressure management: case study

Ricardo Gomes

Presenter:

Authors:

Ricardo Gomes, Nuno Martinho and Matheus Medrado

The expansion of water distribution networks without planning, the lack of investment in the renewal of water distribution networks and the increased of water demand, shows the nowadays changes in the complexity of public water supply systems management. At the same time, the population has become more demanding about the application of public funds and low performances are no longer tolerated. Nowadays, the use of hydraulic simulation and modelling tools [1], in order to improve the management and operation of public water supply systems, assist the decision makers to plan the investment, since the models can simulate the hydraulic behaviour of the network for different scenarios and identify the most appropriated network intervention along the time. Among the challenges for water industry, the following stand out: Efficient use of water and use of alternative water sources (use of rainwater and groundwater and reuse of wastewater); Reduce energy consumption; Improve water quality; Reduce the total volume of water losses; Pressure management; and Asset management. In this paper, the focus is for pressure management analysis required to improve the performance of water distribution networks – where different pressure zones are created to adjust the service pressure throughout the network. Three scenarios were proposed and for each scenario the project Net Present Value are presented as well as the advantages for each solution proposed.

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