Peter Chalk Centre

University of Exeter

Stocker Road

Exeter

EX4 4QD

Tel: +44 (0)1392 263637

E-mail: CCWI2019@exeter.ac.uk 

17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference

1st - 4th September 2019
University of Exeter, UK
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3D Intermittent supply

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2.1-2.2

Ivan Stoianov

Chair:

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Modelling of the filling process of intermittent water distribution systems by using EPA-SWMM

Aurora Gullotta

Presenter:

Authors:

Alberto Campisano, Aurora Gullotta and Carlo Modica

Due to water scarcity, deficiencies in system design or unpredicted urban development, intermittent water supply is common in many countries of the world. Traditional software/tools for water distribution systems do not allow for simulating transient flows, thus being unable to analyse intermittent supply in a proper way. EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA-SWMM), developed for the analysis of urban drainage systems, was used in this work in a novel way to simulate the filling phase in intermittent water distribution systems. The model was validated against field experimental observations from a filling test in a real water distribution network in Sicily (Italy). The obtained results open new perspectives for the use of EPA-SWMM for the analysis of processes occurring in intermittent water distribution systems.

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Modelling private tanks in intermittent water distribution systems by use of EPA-SWMM

Aurora Gullotta

Presenter:

Authors:

Alberto Campisano, Aurora Gullotta and Carlo Modica

Intermittent water distribution systems deliver water to users for less than 24 hours per day and/or less than 7 days per week. Private users try to cope with intermittency by using storage facilities (as back-up facilities) in order to collect water as much as possible during the supply time. Usually the refilling of the tanks is controlled by float valves that follow a non-linear behaviour. The presence of private tanks throughout the network increases the complexity of intermittent water distribution systems and introduces significant difficulties in modelling the network behaviour during intermittent supply. Following recent findings about the suitability of the software EPA-SWMM to simulate intermittent water distribution systems, this work explores technical aspects concerning methods to include the presence of private tanks in the modelling of such systems with EPA-SWMM.

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Characterising Intermittent Water Systems In Data-Scarce Settings Using A Citizen Science Approach

Laure Sione

Presenter:

Authors:

Laure Sione, Michael R Templeton, Christian Onof and Sabitri Tripathi

Intermittent Water Systems (IWS) provide water discontinuously in both time and space. Delivery is unreliable and the water itself is often unsafe for direct consumption. The lack of relevant data on the failures of water infrastructure inhibits research in the direction of remediating IWS, and, by association, improving public health. This paper aims to show that citizen science can be used in conjunction with personal communication technology to bridge the information gaps on the characteristics of intermittent water supplies. Preliminary results indicate that it is a feasible and validated data collection method but requires the application of appropriate statistical analyses to be able to gain useful insights from the sometimes sparse and incomplete data sets that are gained from this approach.

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LEAKAGE REPRESENTATION METHODS IN INTERMITTENT WATER SUPPLY HYDRAULIC MODELLING

Vasileios Koukoravas

Presenter:

Authors:

Vasileios Koukoravas, Raziyeh Farmani and Zoran Kapelan

Leakage in Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) has been drawing water utilities’ attention during the last couple of decades. In the case of Intermittent Water Supply (IWS) systems, leakage has proven to be an issue of high importance. This is due to already limited availability of water resources but also perpetuation of the IWS regime. Excessive physical losses have been observed to amplify under intermittent-operation making IWS an unsustainable measure. Even in the case of temporary implementation of IWS, the WDS infrastructure deteriorate more rapidly than normal causing increased burst events when Continuous Water Supply is re-established. Until recently, water losses have been accounted for as a percentage of the total water demand. Latest studies are stressing that leakage is pressure dependent and it should be incorporated as such in hydraulic modelling of WDSs. More specifically, a large portion of studies on IWS systems’ hydraulic modelling have focused on defining an appropriate pressure-outflow relationship without considering leakage in most cases. Though the studies incorporating leakage as a Pressure Dependent Demand (PDD) are useful and an invaluable guide so far on that field, they still lack in some aspects (e.g. parameter calibration, application and validation with data from real-life complex WDSs, low/non-convergence of hydraulic solvers). This study aims to implement existing and develop new methods for incorporating leakage into hydraulic modelling of IWS systems. Extended Period Simulation (EPS) of the WDS is a crucial process for better understanding, realistically representing the system and achieving losses reduction which can be converted into supplied water or reduced costs for water utilities. EPS of a WDS with a robust hydraulic model can consequently assist in development of pressure management techniques which are gaining popularity as methods to reduce physical water losses.

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Impact of Hydraulic Conditions on Pressures in an Intermittent Water Supply System

Sally Weston

Presenter:

Authors:

Sally Weston and Vanessa Speight

There is a global drive for Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) to operate continuously, providing drinking water to populations for 24 hours per day, every day. Yet unreliability of water supply in some regions means that continuous drinking water is not always feasible. In intermittent supply a variety of hydraulic patterns can arise due to their non-continuous nature. These can range from predictable (planned schedule) to unreliable (random and irregular) intermittency, and can be inequitable through the distribution system. These different patterns can cause the networks to fill and empty at different rates, affecting water quality and infrastructure integrity. It is vital to understand the impact that different hydraulic conditions have on filling and emptying rates, and resulting system pressures. Only understanding these conditions can led to optimal management strategies for longevity of the distribution systems in challenging circumstances. The approach taken in this work was to empty and fill a representative experimental pipeline under four varying hydraulic parameters tested in a one-factor-at-a-time method. The parameters explored were initial/final flow rate, initial/final pressure, leakage percentage, and valve operation speed. To explore unequitable distribution, three scenarios were tested: full system drainage to represent the top of a hill in a network, partial drainage to represent the middle of a hill, and no system drainage to represent the bottom of a hill. Therefore, a total of 24 experiments were performed: four hydraulic parameters and three scenarios for emptying and filling, respectively. All corresponding pressure changes were then analysed for transients and negative pressure (potential risk to water quality), as well as the time taken for the system to pressurise or depressurise. Results show that negative pressures frequently occur, as well as possible overpressurisation of the system, which have water quality implications.

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