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Development of a 3D printed coupon device for monitoring pipe-wall deterioration and material accumulation in drinking water networks
Artur Sass Braga
Artur Sass Braga and Yves Filion
Direct monitoring strategies to assess inner pipe-wall conditions can help to understand and manage deterioration aspects on drinking water distribution systems. Previous studies used coupon devices to place samples in the pipe walls, but additional research requirements make it a challenge to adapt and replicate this solution. This work presents the development of a new coupon system to investigate material accumulation in the Drinking Water Distribution Laboratory (DWDL) at Queen’s University. The coupons were manufactured using simple techniques and 3D printing, aiming to achieve surface positioning precision below 0.1 mm and to maintain the original surface characteristics of the pipes. 3D printing technology was used to produce an effective and low-cost outer coupon support, and a circular gasket was used to guarantee a leak-proof sealing between the pipe wall and the coupon system. The device was produced through a simple and affordable manufacturing process, which permits easy replication and customization for other pipe diameters and materials. Sources of disturbances on the sample surface were minimized due consideration of the processes investigated and also the manufacturing methods. Implementing direct pipe wall monitoring in drinking water systems can contribute to a better understanding to long term deterioration and discolouration material accumulation.
The Operational Value of Inlet Monitoring at Service Reservoirs
Anastasia Doronina, Stewart Husband, Joby Boxall and Vanessa Speight
Drinking water quality leaving water treatment works is of a consistently high standard, as evidenced by regulatory sampling at the outlets. However, as it makes its way through the distribution system, quality deteriorates. As deterioration rates can be related to the condition of the network and how it is operated and maintained, it is important to determine which assets require maintenance. In the UK, water quality is monitored at different stages of the network to account for this. This includes sampling at outlets of service reservoirs, but not at the inlets, therefore resulting in the inability to determine whether a potential issue is linked to the network between treatment and the service reservoir, the service reservoir itself, or both. This paper reports initial results from a project in which, with the support of multiple UK water companies, water quality determinants including metal concentrations, turbidity, and chlorine are being monitored from the treatment works, through distribution, and critically at the inlet and outlet of service reservoirs to capture water quality changes during transport. This information can then be used to identify where deterioration occurs, its magnitude, and crucially, as the project progresses, the impact and benefits from a maintenance perspective, including interventions. The results will help inform the value of additional network monitoring, including type and location.
Wireless powered communication network in IOT enabled water distribution system
Varsha Radhakrishnan and Wenyan Wu
Water distribution system (WDS) is a very important research area that affects the economic growth of our country and requires a great amount of energy for monitoring and management. Many routing protocols has been developed to conserve energy and extend the battery life. In spite of considering the energy conservation, it results in performance degradations. So there is a need to ensure the water quality and wastage in real time by integrating new technologies such as wireless powered communication network (WPCN), Energy harvesting (EH) and AI methods to reduce issues such as energy management, water quality, leakage etc. In WPCN, the wireless devices first harvest energy from the RF source signals and then manage this energy for its processing. Another advantage of WPCN is its stable and controlled power supply under different requirements and physical conditions. All these advantage makes WPCN a better choice in wireless energy transfer. To extend WPCN into IoT, the designing of resource allocation schemes, interference management etc is considered carefully. This research paper focusses on optimizing the energy used in the WPCN with multiple energy sources and multiple sensors in order to achieve zero power state where the amount of energy produced and consumed reaches to a constant value. The problem of unfair information transmission and EH in a dynamic environment is planned to solve by implementing an energy management scheme where important decisions are taken using artificial intelligence methods.
Sensor-based infrastructure for Water Quality measurement in a pilot loop set-up
M.S. Mohan Kumar
Shruti Agarwal and M.S. Mohan Kumar
Most metropolitan cities in the Indian subcontinent are currently facing enormous water crisis. There are numerous issues with the supply and quality of water being provided by municipal corporations. Equitable distribution of water, both in terms of quality and quantity, is under constant jeopardy, with leaks, cross-contamination, illegal connections and irregular supply as the primary culprits. Water quality management is therefore one of the toughest challenges for water suppliers. The need of the hour is to develop tools to understand the distribution of free chlorine in the supply system, to be more informed about the quality of water reaching the consumer. Free chlorine has long been established as a good indicator of the quality of water. Maintaining free chlorine at 0.2ppm is challenging at a city-scale, but mandatory. In this work, experiments are conducted to determine changes in free chlorine concentration on a pilot scale distribution network at a Smart Water Laboratory located in the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The controlled water network simulator is a step towards the Smart Water system in metropolitan cities. The experiments have been conducted taking into account the conditions in an intermittent supply system. Future work includes developing a mathematical model which predicts water quality changes in an intermittent supply system.