Peter Chalk Centre

University of Exeter

Stocker Road

Exeter

EX4 4QD

Tel: +44 (0)1392 263637

E-mail: CCWI2019@exeter.ac.uk 

17th International Computing & Control for the Water Industry Conference

1st - 4th September 2019
University of Exeter, UK
  • Facebook Social Icon
  • Twitter Social Icon
  • Instagram

9D Distributed systems

Please note the time shown on this page is automatically adjusted by the server according to the time zone set in your computer.

2.1-2.2

Xiaochang Wang

Chair:

to

Distributed Micro-Storage Tanks for Pressure Management in Water Distribution System

Mengning Qiu

Presenter:

Authors:

Mengning Qiu, Mashor House and Avi Ostfeld

Water loss in water distribution systems (WDSs) is a challenge faced by many water utilities. A practical method to reduce leakage is through pressure management. This study aims to develop and investigate a method to reduce water leakage in WDSs by strategically placing micro storage tanks in the WDS network. The distributed storage can supply water and energy to neighbouring demand nodes during the low-pressure periods and extract water and energy from neighbouring demand node during the high-pressure periods. It has been shown in this paper that the WDS with distributed storage (1) has a lower total excess pressure in the system than that in the system with centralised storage when pumps are operating, (2) has a similar total excess pressure when the pumps are idle, and (3) requires less time to operate pumps. Moreover, the increased number of tanks can also increase network resilience and reliability.

to

A stand-alone Zero-Liquid-Discharge greenhouse model with rainwater harvesting capability

Mohammad Akrami

Presenter:

Authors:

Maxime Porcheron, Mohammad Akrami, Akbar Javadi, Raziyeh Farmani, Abdelazim Negm and Hassan Fath

Global warming is a prevalent topic throughout the world. The IPCC predicts that the maximum potential global temperature increase will be 4.8 oC by 2100. It has been concluded that a temperature rise of 1.4 oC or higher will have statistically significant impacts on global precipitation levels. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the future trends of precipitation and subsequent irrigation methods. This study will discuss a new multi-functional zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for a greenhouse, incorporating a humidification dehumidification (HDH) mechanism, solar still desalination and rainwater harvesting. The focus of this paper is on analysing the water production of the system. Although previous literature discusses the inefficiency of solar still (SS) desalination, the fresh water produced during similar experiments has shown otherwise, desalinating 0.95 L/m²/hr of saline water. Using multiple panels could therefore give a substantial output of distilled water for certain usage such as agriculture. Implementing solar stills of large surface area would also allow the collection of rainwater thus increasing the total water productivity of the system. The ZLD system aims to produce no waste product and use the output brine water for aquaculture and salt cultivation.

to

Small-scale models of water storage tanks

Alexandre Pinheiro

Presenter:

Authors:

Alexandre Pinheiro, Laura Monteiro, Maria Do Céu Almeida and Dídia Covas

Water storage tanks are essential assets of the water supply systems. They are traditionally designed to cope with the variations in daily demand, to assure the adequate pressures in the distribution networks and to provide water volumes to face emergencies (e.g., for firefighting). Generally, water tanks are operated in order to maximize the network reliability and to minimize energy costs. Traditional practices for the tank’s design, operation and maintenance do not consider the need to ensure an adequate mixing and renewal of the water stored and minimise water quality deterioration. Thus, there is a need for better understanding how design options and operating practices determine the water mixing and renewal inside drinking water storage tanks. This paper presents the first results of an on-going experimental study on the factors that govern water mixing and renewal in storage tanks. The studies are being carried out in lab-scale cylindrical storage tanks, operated at different conditions, and are based on traditional tracer testing. First results show that the residence time distribution (RTD) in the studied conditions is significantly different from fully mixed conditions, suggesting formation of shortcuts and consequently the existence of dead zones.

to

Harvesting Data from Rainwater Systems: Insights from a Retrofit Pilot Study

Peter Melville-Shreeve

Presenter:

Authors:

Peter Melville-Shreeve, Samuel Dickinson, Virginia Stovin, Raziyeh Farmani and David Butler

TWENTY65 Rainwater Harvesting Project Case Study The case study reported herein forms part of Theme Four within the EPSRC funded TWENTY65 project. The authors identified potential pilot sites and implemented a series of 6 RWH systems at a small housing development in Devon. The unique situation of the development leaves the properties with inadequate water supply, as their private borehole water supply is undersized. Prior to the study, the community frequently ran out of water and thus places a high value on its availability – even in the form of rainwater for their toilets. The development’s borehole was upgraded in early 2018 with an additional storage tank added. However, technical and financial barriers prevented further upgrades being undertaken and hence the community continues to experience interrupted water supplies. It could be argued that this highly water-stressed, water-aware community represent a useful analogy to how water consumers will react to increased pressure on our water resources in the year 2065. The TWENTY65 researchers met with the residents in spring 2018 and it was agreed that all 6 properties would receive a rainwater harvesting tank, with data logging system. Each property was broadly the same design and identical rainwater tanks (800l) were installed at the rear of each house in summer 2018. A submersible pump and control system to flush the downstairs toilet was installed and a series of data logging devices connected. These monitor flows to and from the rainwater tank, tank water level and allow data to be accessed via a web portal to minimise site visits and customer disruption. Conclusions The study reports findings from the 12 month monitoring period (July 2018-2019), investigate technical challenges with the monitoring of rainwater systems in real-world settings and set out recommendations for improvements to such technologies in the future.

to

Untreated greywater reuse in suburban households during serious water restrictions: risks and perceptions in Cape Town

Heinz Erasmus Jacobs

Presenter:

Authors:

Heinz Erasmus Jacobs and Nicole Nel

Untreated greywater reuse at household level is an accessible water source to supplement non-potable water requirements in times of emergency water curtailments, but poses various risks to the consumer, the wider community, infrastructure and the environment. Little is known about unregulated, untreated greywater reuse practices under emergency conditions in suburban communities where consumers have become accustomed to reliable potable water supplied via a pressurised, piped distribution system. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the sources of greywater used, collection methods, -storage and -distribution, the application points, the level of treatment (if any) and the perceived risks associated with the greywater reuse. The City of Cape Town was selected as a case study site for research into greywater reuse under the threat of “Day Zero” and stringent water restrictions, implemented during the 2017/2018 summer season. A consumer survey and analysis of relevant online forums and a knowledge review was conducted in order to obtain the necessary information. Greywater reuse practices from a sample group of 351 consumers were identified and classified. Untreated greywater reuse was found to be common, mainly for garden irrigation and toilet flushing. The results point to high-risk activities in the study group in contrast with published research.

to